ABCs of CBD: Understanding the hemp oil industry

Posted by Rachel Nixon on

Many people have heard of CBD, but may not be familiar with all the terms and vocabulary associated with the CBD industry and its products. And that can serve as a hurdle for some customers who want to try products, but are unsure of what it all means.

Here are some common words you will hear when talking about hemp farming and CBD products.  

Cannabidiol (CBD) - one of the primary cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. 

Cannabinoid - beneficial chemical compounds produced by the cannabis plant. Common cannabinoids include CBD, CBG, CBN and THC, but it is believed that at least 113 different cannabinoids are produced within the cannabis plant.  

Cannabis - Two of the most common types of cannabis are cannabis sativa and cannabis indica.

Cannabis Sativa - variety of the cannabis plant that is commonly utilized for hemp and marijuana. 

Hemp - strain of cannabis sativa plant that is used in CBD products. Hemp is defined by the 2018 Farm Bill as cannabis containing not more than 0.3% THC.  

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) - along with CBD, one of the primary cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. THC is associated with the vast majority of the psychoactive effects of marijuana.  

Marijuana - any strain of cannabis plant (sativa, indica or hybrid) with THC levels that are typically between 10-20%, with some higher potency strains containing 25-30%.

Terpene - naturally occurring chemical compound found in plants and some animals. Terpenes are typically responsible for the aroma or flavor of a plant but it is also believed that they work in tandem with other cannabinoids (including CBD) to produce effects of different strains of the cannabis plant. 

Tincture - a solution of a medicinal substance usually taken orally using a dropper.

Biomass - (pictured above) green matter including leaves, petals, buds, and seeds that is removed from the hemp plant. Biomass is ground down and goes through the extraction process to produce CBD.  

Bucking - part of the hemp harvesting process where the greenery is removed from the hemp plant. (Watch a video of Wellness Tree bucking.)

Full-spectrum CBD oil - Final CBD retail product that contains crude CBD oil, mixed with a carrier oil most commonly MCT or coconut oil. Full-spectrum oil contains CBD, terpenes and other potentially beneficial cannabinoids and cannot contain more than 0.3% THC. As opposed to CBD isolate products, which only contain CBD and have had THC processed out but may not have as many medicinal benefits as full-spectrum oil.  

Crude oil - the oil product produced after the extraction process.  Crude oil is as close as you can get to the true chemical makeup of the plant.  

Certificate of analysis (COA) - report of lab testing results that will list which cannabinoids and terpenes are present in a product and at what levels. Best practice is that COA’s are available for public (as ours are) view on a company’s website for each product that it sells.  

Hemp mulch - once the greenery and biomass has been removed, the remaining hemp plant stalks are ground down into hemp mulch. Hemp mulch has many applications including animal bedding and fruit/vegetable gardening.

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